Family Dipterocarpaceae

Anisoptera laevis
mersawa durian
Malaya, Sumatra & Borneo. Most common of genera widely distributed between 300 & 900 m. Vulnerable, due to logging & habitat loss; small smooth leaf, sparse reddish scales on lower surface. Planted 6/07.
Anisoptera marginata
mersawa paya
E Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. In Malaya near
coastal peat swamp forest of S Perak, Selangor,
Pahang, and Johor. Critically endangered by land
conversion. Smooth leaves, bright yellow under.
1 fr TH 11/09
Anisoptera-marginata Anisoptera-marginata-leaf
Anisoptera scaphula
mersawa gajah
South from Chittagong; most common in north of Malaya but found as far south as NS. Favours low altitudes and deep gorges, now endangered through range. Large thin glabrous leaf. Very large trees, up to 9m girth. Planted 6/07.
Anisoptera sp.
Small genus of about 14 species, 7 in Malay peninsula. Most have distinctive leaf: prominent looped marginal vein. High silica content of wood
makes sawing difficult. Large buttresses were frequently cut to make pans for tin washing.
Dipterocarpus baudii
keruing buluIndo China, Burma, Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra. In every state, but rare, used to be comparatively abundant in Sungai Buloh. Rapid early growth, girth of 3′ in 20 years. Prefers low lying but well drained forest.
Dipterocarpus caudiferus Merr.

keruing putih

Latin, cauda = tail, ferre = to bear (the narrow acumen of leaf apex). Immense emergent tree to 65m, columnar bole and buttresses to 3.5m. Endemic Borneo, not in S & SW. Norsham 5.13.

 D caudiferus 1D caudiferus leaf
Dipterocarpus chartaceus
keruing kertas
From Thailand to Johor, but rare, generally in low coastal locations. Crisp papery dead leaf. Twigs are terminated by buds protected by
sheathing stipules that fall to reveal a young folded leaf and another expanding bud beneath.
Dipterocarpus cornutus
keruing gombang
Malaya & Borneo.
Rare over large areas, but common in parts of Perak, Ulu Selangor, K. Pilah, w. Pahang and w. Johor. Conspicuous crown of large light coloured leaves. Twigs and buds covered with velvety tomentum. Leaves oblong, 20 x 12 cm, with c. 20 prs nerves, ridges between.
Dipterocarpus costulatus
keruing kipas
All states Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. On low lying flood prone land, & on hills. Endangered. Leathery, glabrous, ridged leaf acute at the base. Grey bole, bark studded with lenticles, stipules to 16 cm, tomentose, pastel pink. Planted 6/07.
Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer
keruing mempalas
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo; these from Labis FR, Johor. Prefers low drained land, now vulnerable, small population at Pasoh. Small harshly hairy oval leaf. Stipules up to 5 x 2.5 cm, boat shaped, smooth or w/deciduous hairs, pink when fresh. Viable fruits rare, excessively insect predated.


Dipterocarpus dyeri
keruing etoi, keruing daun besar
From Cochin, China,Thailand, Burma to north Malay peninsula, in Perlis & north Kedah only, at low elevations, critically endangered. Coarse twigs, slender petioles, many nerved leaves, base cordate.


Dipterocarpus elongatus
keruing latek
Malaya, NE Sumatra, N Borneo. Usually in low lying forest, near swamps or on flood prone land, critically endangered by land conversion. Large many nerved leaves, & large wingless fruits.
Dipterocarpus eurhyncus Miq.
keruing baran
Sumatra, Borneo, S Philippines, Malaya in east coast south of KT, was common Arong FR Johor, now critically endangered. Small ridged leaf.From Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Dipterocarpus gracilis
keruing kesat
Chittagong, Andamans, Vietnam, Malaya, Java, Sumatra, Philippines. Endangered. Grey bole w/reddish patches where scales have fallen; finely lenticillated bark. Leaves 15 x 8 cm, 14 -18 nerved. Planted 6/07.

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
keruing belimbing
From Andamans to Philippines; widespread in Malaya. Name from calyx tube like belimbing. Bole light yellow, scaly, with smooth lenticellate portions. Stipules v. large before falling, 18 x 5 cm, purple pink when fresh. Fruits among the largest of the genus. Young leaves of saplings dark purple. Planted 6/07.



Dipterocarpus humeratus Slooten
keruing kerukup

Latin humeris = shoulder; the articulated petiole. Sumatra & Borneo. In mixed Dipterocarp foests on well drained clay soils. Emergent tree to 50m with 2m buttresses. Norsham 5.13.

 D humeratus treeD humeratus stipule
Dipterocarpus kunstleri
keruing gombang merah
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. Lowlands, now endangered. Twigs w/broad stipular collars, large glabrous leaves. Young boles marked w/horizontal furrows, older yellowish bark studded w/diffuse, medium lenticels. Linear stipules. Leaves broad ovate or elliptic, 22 x 15 cm, 15 nerved, petioles 5-7 cm, black, glabrous. Planted 6/07.
Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Bl.
keruing neram
Borneo, Malaya, along rivers above tidal zone, strictly riparian. Rare in west, but in Bubu FR Perak. Secure in Taman Negara, but threatened elsewhere. Thick fissured bark, sub-ovate velvety leaves. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Dipterocarpus sarawakensis Sloot
keruing layang
Sarawak, Brunei, south Borneo, & near Kemaman River, Terengganu. On low leached sandy soils. Extinct in Malaya? Small obovate obtuse leaf, wavy margin towards apex, short petiole, dense coarse indumentum. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw.
keruing kerut
Sumatra, N Borneo, Malaya. Most abundant on undulating land s of Temerloh, scattered on west coast. Small ridged leaves, sub-lamellate fruits. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Dryobalanops aromatica
Sumatra, Rhiau, Borneo. In Malaya confined to northern east coast, except for small important area near Rawang. Distinguished by aromatic crushed leaf, wood resistant to fugal attack.
Dryobalanops lanceloata

kapur paji

Latin, lanceolatus = shaped like the head of a spear (the leaf blade). Emergent tree to 80m. Endemic in Borneo. Saplings shade tolerant, but given a light gap grow very fast. Norsham 5.13. D. lanceloata on left, specimen on right seems to be D. keithii, with very large leaves and different tree architecture.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer
Malaya, e Sumatra, w & centr Borneo, seasonally flooded forest, but absent in deep peat. Used to build boats. Vulnerable due to habitat loss. Large canopy trees, bark closely studded w/small lenticels, heavy wingless fruits. Seed c 2.5 cm enclosed at base by 5-lobed calyx tube.2 new speciments June 2008, pictured below right.
Hopea auriculata Foxw.
Rare endemic fr Panti, Johor & G. Tapis, Pahang. Lanceolate few nerved leaf w/ almost invisible tertiary venation, and auriculate fruit, 2 winged, 7×1.5cm. Small trees, smooth bark.
Hopea bilitonensis Ashton
no recorded local name
Banka, Bilitung, once on Perak limestone. Long, narrow, equal-based leaves w/remotely tertiary scalariform nerves. Winged ovate fruits, 1 cm w/short point, sepals narrowly winged at base, 2 longer and 3 shorter than nut.
Hopea dryobalanoides
mata kuching hitam
Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (Kedah, Perak, Sel, NS, Pahang). Endangered. Thin elliptic to oblong lanceolate dryobalanoid leaves. Small trees, adventitious aerial roots; tear-like stalactitic exudations of pale damar. Planted 6/07.
Hopea ferrea  Lanessan
malut, cengal batu
Indochina, Thailand, NW Malaya, this from Langkawi. Near or on rocky hills; now endangered. Shaggy bole, small leafed crown that is red in new leaf. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
H ferreaH ferrea stipule

Hopea ferruginea
mata kucing merah, merawan jangkung
Malaya, Sumatra, Riau, Borneo; Melaka, NS, Johor, on low undulating land. Habitat loss now endangered. Buttresses sharp, stilt roots, bark cracked w/clear dammar.
Hopea johorensis
merawan mata kucing pipit
Endemic, confined to E Johor. Vulnerable. Reddish brown powdery surface of the bole, exudations of damar mata kucing and small many nerved leaves. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Hopea mengarawan
merawan penak, pengarawan jangkang
Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. East coast & south
peninsula. On low, often swampy land. Often stilt-rooted, jangkang. Endangered, habitat loss, small
stipules, reversing curve before falling. Large
leathery, many veined leaves; fruits 2 winged.
1 fr TH 11.09

Hopea nervosa
merawan jangkang
Borneo & Malaya. Endangered by habitat loss, all states. Smooth barked Hopea up to 2.5m girth. Large oblong leaves w prominent main nerves; large fruits, 2 winged to 10cm; jangkang prominent stilt roots. 1 fr TH 11.09.
Hopea-nervosa Hopea-nervosa-leaf
Hopea nutans
Trengganu, Pahang, Johor, sometimes in gregarious and rich stands. Timber very hard heavy and durable, hence greatly depleted.
Hopea odorata
chengal pasir
Indo-China, Burma, Siam, Andaman Is. and north Malaya. Rarely far from streams. Identified by pore-like domatia in leaf axils. Flower petals pale yellow, fruits 2 winged; nut ovate conical. Timber: merawan, commercial in Burma & Siam.
Hopea pierrei HANCE
merawan palung (trough, ref sunken rib)
S Indochina, Thailand, Pasoh FR, Ulu GombakFR, now endangered by conversion and logging.  This fr Gombak.  Small ovate-acuminate many nerved leaf with midrib depressed on upper surface. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Hopea polyalthioides
giam rambai (Ulu Gombak)
Rare endemic, only in well drained forest in one valley in Panti FR Johor; maybe extinct, but this fr Ulu Gombak. Large, long-oblong leaves arranged in distichous sprays and velvety young twigs. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.
Hopea pubescens
merawan bunga
Endemic to Kelantan and Pahang on flat drained land & low hills. Fissured bark, pubescent twigs and small leaves (sparsely hairy on midrib that is sunk on upper surface). Fruit 2 wings only 2cm long, v. small nut.
Hopea sangal
Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, islands of Sunda shelf. Typically near rivers. In extreme north its place is taken by closely related and very similar H. odorata (cengal pasir). Vulnerable because of lowland habitat. Planted 6/07.
Hopea subalata
merawan kancing
Endemic to Kancing FR Selangor. Thin oval ovate, caudate-acuminate subdyrobalanoid leaves and almost wingless fruits.  Small smooth barked Hopea to 1m girth, buttresses stilted, w/ adventitious stilt roots, bole straight but not tall.
Hopea sp.
Planted June 2012, from Maxwell Hill.
Neobalanocarpus heimii
Endemic Malay peninsula. V. large trees, bole with short buttresses, dark bark with irregular fissures becoming scaly in older trees. Produces the primary timber of Malaya. Seeds heavy & wingless fall just beneath parent tree.
Parashorea densiflora
meranti pasir
Endemic to southern half of peninsula. Scattered in undulating or hilly forests up to 450m. Now endangered, perhaps critically, by land conversion. Small hairly leaves, and globose fruits with reflexed calyx lobes. Med to lg trees, up to 4m girth; crown heavy dark coloured.


Parashorea malaanonan
urat mata daun licin
Borneo white seraya, not found in Malaya.TH 6.2012.Tagalog, mala=false, anonang=the custard apple) Borneo, Philippines. Widespread in Sabah. To 60m, 2m diam, dense dome shaped crown. Vulnerable, cut for timber. Norsham 5.13.
P malaanonanP malaanonan new leaf
Parashorea tomentella (Symington) Meijer

urat mata beludu

Latin, tomentellus = with small stuffing (eg a pillow): the indumentum. Emergent to 65m, 2m diam. Borneo endemic. Vulnerable.Norsham 5.13.


Parashorea tomantella SabahParashorea tomantella new leaf
Shorea acuminata
meranti rambai daun
Southern half of Malay peninsula, most abundant in hilly country about 330m. Drooping branchlets, large semi-persistent stipules, unequal sided leaves and purple-red flowers. Grey to reddish bole, rough irregular fissured bark.Although greatly reduced by forest conversion, this species is not currently at risk. A specimen planted in 1997 at Rimbun Dahan fruited sparsely in Sept 2009.
Shorea acuminatissima Symington

seraya kuning runcing

Latin, accuminatassimus = prominently acuminate; the leaf apex. Borneo endemic. Vulnerable. Norsham 5.13.

 S accuminatissima SabahS accuminatissima Sabah leaf
Shorea assamica Dyer subspecies globifera (Ridl.) Sym
meranti pipit (meranti pa’ang) group
From NW India through to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku. Several geographical races are distinct botanical forms, that of Malaya and Sumatra is the form globifera. Comon in north, not found in Selangor. Leaves oval elliptic, 7 x 3cm, 17 nerved.

Shorea balanocarpoides
damar katup (meranti damar hitam)
N Sumatra, w Borneo, Malaya; from Kedah to Kinta; Kelantan & Terengganu. On undulating low land, endangered by logging, habitat conversion. Large oval 7 nerved leaves, heavy crowns, fruits wingless.
Shorea bentongensis
meranti mengkai (meranti pa’ang group)
Endemic sp. found in Ulu Gombak, Bentong, Rompin, NE & S Johor, on low land, deep valleys, endangered by habitat loss. Large trees with smooth bole like sepetir (Sindora spp.), leaves elliptic, c. 15 nerved, large fruit w/ short narrow wings, 3 outer 2 inner. Planted 6/07.2 new specimens June 2008, pictured below. Shorea-bentongensis-stip
Shorea-bentongensis_stipul Shorea-bentongensis
Shorea curtisii
Malaya, from Pattani to Singapore. common and characteristic species of hill dipterocarp forests. Light coloured crowns, lanceolate, glaucescent leaves (pale waxy bloom on upper leaf surface, lower surface pale yellow glaucescent). Large trees to 3m girth, record 7m. Dark red meranti.
Shorea curtisii subsp grandis
Seraya daun besar
Endemic form found only in Keledang Saiong  and Bukit Kinta FRs, Perak, bw 200 and 500m. Deeply fissured bark, leaves resemble seraya, but much larger. Fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
Shorea-curtisii-sub-sp-grandisS curtisii subsp grandis ?
 Shorea blumutensis
meranti kelim
‘kelim’ refers to revolute margin of leaf.  Occurs in Mersing and Gunung Blumut, Johor, also Sumatra. Critically endangered.  Eliptic-lanceolate leathery leaves with above margins; fulvous-tomentose twigs and petioles.
S blumutensis
Shorea dasyphylla
meranti batu(red meranti group)
Malaya, eastern Sumatra, Sarawak. Favours low but well drained forest, now (critically?) endangered by land conversion & logging. Leaves ovate lanceolate to elliptic oblong, 11 x 6 cm, variable, 13 nerved, softly tomentose under. Planted 6/07.
Shorea faguetiana
damar siput(meranti damar hitam group)
Borneo, Malaya. Widely distributed, large tree. Leaves curl up on ground, ovate-lanceolate, 8 x 3 cm, 10 nerved, glabrous, petiole 12 mm, young expanding leaves dark red.
Shorea foxworthyi
balau bukit
Endemic species, throughout the peninsula except south of Ulu Selangor on west coast, on undulating land up to 2,000 feet.

Shorea gibbosa
damar hitam gajah
Malaya, SE Sumatra, Borneo. Malaya only in central & s Johor, Singapore. Pale silvery brown striated dried twigs and larger fruits distinguish it from S. faguetiana, v similar. Larger than damar hitam (S. multiflora). 1 from TH 11/09.Abundant in Sabah where it is known as seraya kuning gajahLatin, gibbosus = pouched; the stamina filament. SE Sumatra, Malaya, Singapore, Borneo. Widespread in Sabah. Vast emergent to 70m, 2m diam bole. Variable sp. Norsham 5.13
S gibbosa SabahS gibbosa stipule
Shorea gratissima
meranti laut
Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra.
Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings.
S gratissima
Shorea guiso
membatu(balau group)
From China to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo. Endangered. Small, thin 16 nerved leaves, 9 x 4 cm. Leaves larger on saplings than on mature trees. Planted 6/07.selangan batu merahFr Philippino name. Cochin China, Thailand, Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo, Philippines. Common in weakly seasonal tropics. Large emergent to 60m, 1.6m diam. Norsham 5.13.


Shorea hemsleyana
chengal pasir daun besar
Malay peninsula and Sarawak, especially in swampy land on lower Perak. Common in Ijok and Parit. Timber worked in Parit sawmill, but not plentiful.
Shorea henryana
meranti jerit
From south lower Burma, S Laos and Vietnam, and SE peninsular Thailand to Perlis, north Kedah and Langkawi. Yellow crown, ovate lanceolate leaves glaucous or pink under, rusty pink twigs. Timber hardest, heaviest, most difficult to saw. 2 planted 8/08.
S henryana
Shorea hopeifolia
damar siput jantan
Borneo, Sumatra, Malay peninsula, but not Selangor; near streams. Large winged fruit, 3 outer wings (5cm x 1 cm), 2 inner wings (3cm x .5cm), all red when mature.

Shorea hypochra
meranti temak
(meranti pa’ang group)
Cambodia, S. China, Thailand, Riau, Lingga, Malaya. Usually in low swampy forest. Endangered. Large oval to elliptic-oblong leathery leaves. Planted 6/07.

Shorea kudatensis Wood ex Meijer

seraya kuning

Of Kudat, Sabah. Endemic in NE Sabah. Large emergent to 45m, 1.9m diam, low rounded buttresses. Endangered. Norsham 5.13.

S kudatensis
Shorea lamellata Foxw.
meranti lapis
Riau, Borneo, Malaya.
S Perak, now critically endangered. Oblong hairly leaves with c 24 prs prominent main nerves. Often >3m girth, short stout buttresses. TH 6.2012
S lammellata
Shorea laevis Ridl.
Burma, Thailand, N Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya. Common on inland ridges, often with S. curtisii   Probably largest trees in balau group. Fresh leaves bright yellow midrib.HSBG Tawau, Sabah, fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
S leavisS leavis leaf
Shorea lepidota
meranti langgong
Sumatra and Malaya, except Perlis, Kelantan, Selangor, usually on low land. Deeply fissured bark (mature), thin oblong glabrescent leaves, & saplings with persistent falcate stipules and downy twigs.
Shorea leprosula Miq
meranti  tembaga
red meranti group of Shorea
Throughout the peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. Used to be common on well drained lowland soils and the most abundant form of meranti; now much reduced but still common in protected areas, regenerates vigorously. 11 planted inside front fence in 1989, now (Jan 08) the largest has a CBH of 158 cm, 62″. Yellowish brown crown. Leaves elliptical, short blunt acuminate; about 15 nerved, yellow tomentose on lower surface. Twigs hairy.1 new specimen June 2008, pictured below.

Shorea leprosula.

Shorea longisperma
meranti damar hitam(meranti damar hitam group)
E. Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (mainly S). In undulating & low forest, up to 300m. Rare scattered tree; once locally common in parts of Selangor, now critically endangered. V. large trees, fallen leaves curled up, reddish brown on upper, pale and hairy on lower. 13 nerved, petiole 12mm coarsely stellate hairy. Planted 6/07.
 Shorea lumutensis Sym.
balau putih
Endemic, only from coastal hills in Dindings, Perak. Critically endangered. fissured bark, glaucous, leathery, elliptic-oblong leaves.
S lumutensis
Shorea macrantha Brandis
kepong hantu, cengal/meranti pasir
Sumatra, Sarawak, Malaya (lower Sg Perak, E Pahang & Johor). Swampy areas, critically endangered by land conversion. Drooping branchlets; unequal sided leaves, tomentose; large wingless fruits.New specimen June 2008 pictured below.Shorea macrantha stipule. Shorea-macrantha
Shorea-macrantha_stipShorea macrantha stipule.
Shorea macroptera
melantai(red meranti group)
Malaya, Sumatra, west Borneo. In low lying well drained forest, to 900m. Frequently assoc with seraya (S. curtisii). Leaves obovate oblong, 13 x 5 cm, variable, frequently folded along midrib, 15 nerved, drying dull yellow brown. Planted 6/07.
S materialis seedling
Shorea materialis
balau pasir
Endemic species limited to east coasts of Pahang, Johor and possibly Trengganu. Name refers to sandy habitat on river banks. Broad ovate,
glaucous, leathery leaves, prefers low flat land, but largely logged from accessible areas.
S materialis trunk
Shorea maxima
meranti sengkawang putih
(meranti damar hitam group)
Endemic Perak, S Pahang, & Kelantan. Once common in T. Malim on low hills. Endangered but conserved in parks. Dense crown w/twisted branches, large flowers, large wingless fruits. Small girth, rarely 2m. Leaves oblong lanceolate, 16 x 6cm, 9 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea maxwelliana
damar laut daunkecil
Essentially Malaya, sometimes in Borneo. Prefers well drained positions to 700m, more common on low ridges. Small elliptic/ovate-lanceolate leaves, faintly nerved and usually glaucous under.


 Shorea mecistopteryx
Shorea multiflora
damar hitam
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. Often on ridges in association with seraya (S. curtisii) & kumus (S. leavis). Small leaves dry light, golden brown under; small wingless fruits. Understorey tree.
Shorea ochrophloia
seraya batu(balau group)
Endemic, all states of Malaya, sporadically on low well drained land & hills up to 300m. Once common, now critically endangered. Yellow grey bole, large trees, girth up to 3m, short buttresses, crown large, heavy, dark coloured. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 7 x 5cm, 15 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea ovalis
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. A common meranti in lowland forest, favouring lowland and stream side. Boat shaped scabrid leaves, hairy twigs, semi-persistent triangular stipules. One of the largest and tallest trees, often >4m girth (2m in 45 yrs?), sharp buttresses. Light red meranti timber.
Shorea ovata
meranti sarang punai bukit
Malaya, w Sumatra, Borneo, Mindanao. Rarely
found outside preferred habitat 600-1300m asl.
Oblong hairy stipules to 13mm. Slow growth cf
other dark red merantis. 1 from TH 11/09.
Shorea parvifolia
meranti sarang punai
Widely distributed, up to 800m, but generally most at 500m. Frequently the most abundant species of Shorea present in any forest. Semi persistent
triangular stipules.
Shorea pauciflora
Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. Low but well drained habitat, up to 700m. Common in Ijok FR, Perak. Scaly bole, purplish brown dried leaves,
inconspicuous tertiary nerves.
Shorea peltata Sym.
meranti telepok
E Sumatra, W and central Borneo, NE Johor in Jemaluang FR. Low land, critically endangered in Malaya. Peltate leaves, telepok for similarity to lotus leaf. 1 fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
S peltataS peltata leaf
Shorea platycarpa
meranti paya
red meranti group
Malaya, E. Sumatra. Edges of swamp forests from coastal Perak & Trengganu to Singapore. Locally abundant in Parit. Endangered. Coarsely fissured bark, dark coloured crown, & broad scabrid or tomentose leaves. Elliptic, 17 nerved.

Shorea platyclados
meranti bukit, karai
Mountainous areas of Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo in upper dipterocapr forest zone, higher than any other Shorea. Rich stands at the Gap, Fraser’s Hill. Flattened branchlets, smooth lanceolate leaves with sharply keeled midrib. Up to 5.5m girth, buttresses stout, bark falling in flat scales. Much logged, endangered.

Shorea resinosa.Shorea resinosa
meranti belang
(meranti pa’ang group)
Sumatra, Malaya, W Sarawak. Wide range but rare, on undulating hills blw 500m. Critically endangered by habitat loss. Elliptic lanceolate smooth leaf 10 x 4 cm with 13 nerves prominently yellow against darker under surface of dried leaf. Large trees, over 3m girth, no buttresses. Planted 6/07.Shorea resinosa.2 new specimens June 2008, pictured to the right.

Shorea roxburghii
meranti pa’ang group of Shorea
From India (deciduous) to Malaya, very adaptable, north of the Malaya-Burma floristic division. Characteristic of Schima-bamboo forest in Perlis and Kedah. Thick bark, oblong thin, long petioled leaves. Tolerates
drought and fire. Likely to expand its range with increasing dryness in remaining forests. It flowers and fruits when just a few years old. Formerly S. talura.
Shorea seminis (de Vriese) Slooten

selangan batu terendak

Borneo and Philippines. Locally common along rivers. Large emergent to 45m.

S seminis SabahS seminis Sabah leaf
Shorea singkawang
meranti sengkawang
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Lingga, E. Sumatra. In lowland forest from Kedah & Kelantan to Johor. Usually on well drained land up to 400m. Not common. Large purple brown dead leaves, elliptic 20 x 8cm, 13 nerved; large fruits almost wingless. Planted 6/07.


Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa.Shorea singkawang var. scabrosameranti sengkawang (red meranti)Malaya, Lingga, e Sumatra. This sub sp (13 nerved leaf) only in E Terengganu & Pahang, rare, critically endangered. Large purple dead leaves (elliptic oblong 20cm). Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa stipule.
Shorea sumatrana
sengkawang (balaugroup)
Sumatra, Malay peninsula, generally on the east coast. Frequently in lowlying swampy habitats along the banks of rivers. Critically endangered by population fragmentation and habitat destruction. Twigs glabrous, leaves elliptic-oblong with about 10 pairs of nerves sharply prominent on undersurface. Fruits have reduced wings, adapted for water dispersal. This was one of the first Dipterocarps planted at Rimbun Dahan in 1990, and the single specimen has a girth of 90 cm (2008). The revised edition of Symington notes a much slower growth rate, to 60 cm in 19 years.This specimen was felled by a freak gust of wind, 12 Nov 2009. Seedlings propagated from it will be planted at Rimbun Dahan.Shorea-sumatrana-2Shorea sumatrana flower.
Shorea symingtonii Wood.

C.F. Symington (1905-1943) master of the dipterocarps.

melapi kuning

Endemic to Borneo, confined to eastern Sabah, scattered in dipterocarp forest on clay rich soils.. Large emergent tree to 50m.

S symingtoniiS symingtonii leaf
Shorea sp.(balau)Seed from Johor.  Undescribed species. Shorea-sp
Shorea sp.(At old fountain) Shorea-sp.-no-ID-front-foun
Shorea sp.(Front fountain) Shorea-sp-no-ID-at-old-foun
Shorea sp.
Vatica cuspidata (Ridl.) Sym.
resak daun runcing
Endemic to Malaya, and most common Vatica, on coastal hills. Vulnerable, due to conversion and placing logging roads on ridges. Long petioled acuminate leaf that dries dark. TH 2012.
V cuspidata leaf
Vatica flavida Foxw.
Resak padi
Endemic to Parit FR, Keroh & Cikus. Feared extinct. Elliptic-obovate cuspidate leaf with veins hairy on under surface. Yellow flowers in great profusion. These from Univeristi Petronas campus, 2011.
Vatica havilandii stipule.Vatica havilandii Brandis
resak degung
N. Borneo, Malaya: Parit FR. Prefers low forest, critically endangered, close to extinction in Malaya. Obovate-oblong leaf sharp at apex, rounded at base but variable. Dries papery dark purple. Nut globose.
Vatica lobata
resak paya
Endemic sp from Sg Paka, Trengganu. Swampy
land near streams, now critically endangered if
not extinct due to conversion of habitat to estate.
Obovate leaf with only 5 prs nerves. 1 fr TH 11/09.
Vatica-lobata Vatica lobata.
Vatica lowii King emend. Sym.
resak pipit
From SE Thailand to Johor. Small bluntly acuminate leaf. Typical Vatica, up to 1.5m girth. From Tunas Harapan 6.12
Vatica nitens King
resak daun panjang
Malay peninsula and NW Borneo. From Penang and s. Kedah to Panti, s. Johor. Common in northern Selangor but not abundant anywhere. Vulnerable
to logging and forest conversion. Large oblong leaves, bole up to 3m girth.
Vatica odorata (Griff.) Sym.
resak ranting kesat
Throughout Malaya, more common in north. Sub species, on low hills. Rusty pink tomentose young twigs (kesat: rough twigs) and semi-inferior fruits. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.12.
Vatica pauciflora (Korth.) Bl.
resak paya
Fr S Vietnam to S Sumatra, in low lying swampy habitat. Vulnerable due to fragmentation. Typical Vatica, less than 3m girth, wingless fruits adapted for water dispersal. Tunas Harapan 6.12.
Va pauciflora infloresence
Vatica stapfiana (King) Sloot
resak mempening, resak laru
Malaya and Sumatra. Not uncommon in Selangor, Perak, Pahang, often in valleys, near streams. Rarely exceeds 1m girth, exudations of yellow dammar. Fruits resemble acorns of Quercus, mempening.
Vatica venulosa Bl.
resak letup
Malaya, Sumatra, W Java, Borneo. Near streams in damp soil, probably endangered, but not studied. Typical small Vatica, <1m girth. Small leaves, nut concealed by 5 sepal wings 3 cm long. Lata Belatan, Trengganu. TH 6.2012.
Vatica yeechongii
Endemic sp from Sg Lalang FR Selangor, first
described in 2002, on slope not far from Saraca
stream. V large leaves, 40cm long, billowed
between at least 28 prs nerves, short stout
petiole and stout twigs. 1 fr TH 11/09