Family Fagaceae

Castanopsis inermis


All states except Malacca. Sumatra. Fruit can be eaten after cooking.
The flowers smell of rancid fat like those of wild cinnamon, their
nectar attracting many insects.



Castanopsis-megacarpaCastanopsis megacarpa

gertak tangga

Common in lowlands of Malaya, except for Penang, Perlis. Borneo. Malay name from the creaking
of the house ladder, when one has been so unfortunate to have eaten
the chestnut-like but poisonous fruit. Med tree to 25m, bole hooped, buttresses rare. Stipule acorn shaped, cupules to 3″ dia covered w/close branching spines.


Lithocarpus eichleri


Perak, Selangor, Johor. Sumatra. Often in swamps. Rare.  8-15 pairs secondary nerves, tertiaries ladder like. Cupule saucer shaped.

Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012.


Lithocarpus elegans

India, Indo-China, Malesia. Wide ranging, variable sp., shiny fawn
leaves, glabrous, same colour on both sides. Common on degraded sites.
Distinct from Quercus by erect spikes, thick leaf stalk, entire leaf


Lithocarpus lucidus

Sumatra, Borneo, all states Malaya. Common. Lat. fr. shiny acorns
and leaves. Big tree to 50m, bole often fluted, plank buttresses.
Big acorns.


Lithocarpus maingayi


Endemic in Malaya, in hill forest above 1,000 ft. Cupule completely encloses fruit. Fr Tunas Harapan 6.2012


Lithocarpus rassa

Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. To 25m, but shorter with increasing altitude. Leaf blade 1-5″ long; fruit spikes up to 3″ long; cup half inch wide, broader than long. From mountains to coast.

Lithocarpus-rassa Lithocarpus-rassa-leaf

Lithocarpus wallichianus

Gr. lithos-stone, carpos-fruit. Big tree, Peninsula Siam, Malaya, Sumatra. Flat cup shaped fruit encases acorn. Distinguished from Quercus by erect spikes, leaf stalk thickening, entire leaf margins, bisexual inflorescences.

Lithocarpus-wallichianus-2 Lithocarpus-wallichianus-3

Quercus gemelliflora


Lat. oak. Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya exc. Perlis. Terminal buds in rows of scales, leaves spiral margin toothed, esp. towards apex. 400 spp. in tropics and north temp., Malaya 8 spp. This sp. underside of leaves glabrous. Tree to 30m. Bole oft. fluted & hooped. 2m buttresses steep & thick.


Quercus spp.

Oak, 400spp world wide, 8 in Malaya where they are forest trees that seldom reach the canopy. Distinguished by acorns.