Family Sterculiaceae

Firmiana malayana
mata lembu

Only one species in Malaya, recognized by membranous fruit dispersed
with seeds attached while Sterculia fruits and seeds are
dispersed separately. Deciduous after dry, then orange flowers (Corner’s
cover) quickly followed by fruit.


Heritiera javanica
mengkulang jari

Indo-China, Siam, Malesia to Celebes. Widely distributed through Malaya,
except Perlis, Penang, Malacca.Lowland & hill forests to 600m.
Lg. tree to 43m and 3m girth. Thin buttresses, bark grey fawn , cracking
scaly. Terminal bud pointed, covered w/powdery hairs.

Pterospermum diversifolium

About 20 spp. from India to Moluku, 6 spp. Malaya. Leaves alternate,
asymmetric with obliquely heart-shaped base, coppery/rusty under.
Young twigs hairy, stipules entire, sapling leaves like adult but
with brownish tomentum. Uncommon, not south of Negri Sembilan.

Pterospermum diversifolium.
Pterygota alata


To 50m, dense crown, plank buttresses. Old World tropics, 1sp. Malaya,
leaves spiral simple, heart shaped, stalk kneed, flowers unisexual,
5 sepals, no petals. Fruits roundish with long stalk, woody, split
along one side. Many seeds, with long wing.

Pterygota alata crown. Pterygota alata trunk.

Pterygota alata leaf.

Pterygota alata peltate leaves.

New.Scaphium linearicarpum

kembang semangkuk bulat

Malaya, all states exc Melaka andNegeri Sembilan. Tree to 36m,
sapling leaves very large, 5-7 lobed, 30cm stalk.
Fruit follicle 25 x 6cm, yellowish, hairy. Seed
hairy, 25 x 15 mm. 1 fr TH 11.09.

Scaphium linearicarpum leaf.

Scaphium linearicarpum.
New.Scaphium macropodum

kembang semangkuk jantong

Cambodia, Siam, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya; most common and widespread sp, on well drained land
and ridges; macropodum, long foot, ie fruit. Inflorescence
panicle red tomentose. 1 fr TH 11.09.

Scaphium macropodum.
Scaphium sp.
kembang semangkuk

Large trees with short thick buttresses. Leaves spirally arranged,
sapling leaves v. large & palmately lobed. Spp. apparent when
mature. Flowers small, cream, upright. Fruit large green pod splits
on one side before mature. A seed cut and soaked in water makes mucilage
to fill a cup.

Scaphium sp.

kembang semangkuk

4 spp in Malaya, this v rare endemic, from Parit FR, not yet described. Large deciduous trees with thick buttresses, leaves spiral, simple, v long stalks. Sm pale green fragrant flowers, seeds swell when soaked; edible, medicinal. 3 specimens Dec 2007.

Sterculia cordata
Malaya, Sumatra, Java. Uncommon, Kedah, Langkawi, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Malacca, Johore. To 30m. Leaves heart shaped (cordata), undersurface dense softly hairy. Flowers pink, hairy, fragrant.

Sterculia foetida

kelompang jari

East Africa to Queensland, on rocky and sandy coasts. Palmate compound
leaves; flowers 2 cm crimson foetid wooly in loose green panicles.
Deciduous after dry weather, flowers before or with new leaves. Saplings
like huge ubi kayu.

Sterculia foetida flowers. Sterculia foetida seed pod.Sterculia foetida old seed pod.

Sterculia foetida green seed pods.

Sterculia foetida flowers.

Sterculia macrophylla


W. Malaysia, common in lowland and swampy forest. Deciduous every
7 to 9 months, flowers before new leaves develop. Spreading sharp
buttresses, bark smooth silver grey, massive twigs. Large leathery
leaf, hairy under. Flowers tiny, greenish yellow, in hanging racemes

Sterculia macrophylla flowers.

Sterculia macrophylla.
Sterculia monosperma


Not indigenous to Southeast Asia.

Sterculia parviflora

kelompang burung

NE India to Singapore, common. Flowers pale yellow and pink at base,
becoming reddish, hairy. Fruit velvety pods, yellow flushed pink,
ripening brilliant orange-red, black seeds.

Sterculia parviflora trunk. Sterculia parviflora flowers.


Sterculia parviflora flowers.

Sterculia parvifolia


Small tree. Endemic, Penang, Perak, Selangor, on hills. Narrow leaf
blade, flowers 1cm, reddish pink, pods to 4cm.

Sterculia parvifolia leaf.