Genus Shorea

A genus in the family Dipterocarpaceae.

<< Return to Plant List

Shorea acuminata
meranti rambai daun
Southern half of Malay peninsula, most abundant in hilly country about 330m. Drooping branchlets, large semi-persistent stipules, unequal sided leaves and purple-red flowers. Grey to reddish bole, rough irregular fissured bark.Although greatly reduced by forest conversion, this species is not currently at risk. A specimen planted in 1997 at Rimbun Dahan fruited sparsely in Sept 2009. Location in row 3 W of entrance to main house, near Ahmad’s white sculpture.
Shorea acuminatissima Symington
seraya kuning runcing
Latin, accuminatassimus = prominently acuminate; the leaf apex. Borneo endemic. Vulnerable. Norsham 5.13. Located with other Sabah spp front area W of stream source.
 S accuminatissima SabahS accuminatissima Sabah leaf
Shorea assamica Dyer
subspecies globifera(Ridl.) Sym
meranti pipit (meranti pa’ang) group
From NW India through to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku. Several geographical races are distinct botanical forms, that of Malaya and Sumatra is the form globifera. Comon in north, not found in Selangor. Leaves oval elliptic, 7 x 3cm, 17 nerved. Planted N of Dryobalanops aromatica, on front fence, but now lost.

Shorea balanocarpoides
damar katup (meranti damar hitam)
N Sumatra, w Borneo, Malaya; from Kedah to Kinta; Kelantan & Terengganu. On undulating low land, endangered by logging, habitat conversion. Large oval 7 nerved leaves, heavy crowns, fruits wingless.
Shorea bentongensis
meranti mengkai (meranti pa’ang group)
Endemic sp. found in Ulu Gombak, Bentong, Rompin, NE & S Johor, on low land, deep valleys, endangered by habitat loss. Large trees with smooth bole like sepetir (Sindora spp.), leaves elliptic, c. 15 nerved, large fruit w/ short narrow wings, 3 outer 2 inner. Planted 6/07.2 new specimens June 2008, pictured below. One planted on path from Uda Manap to front, on left just beyond entrance to path, 2 more at N end of area with Ahmad’s white sculpture.Shorea-bentongensis-stip
Shorea-bentongensis_stipul Shorea-bentongensis
 Shorea blumutensis Foxw.
meranti kelim
Sumatra, Johor. Elliptic lanceolate, leathery leaves with revolute margins, and fulvous tomentose twigs and petioles. Up to 30m height, 2m girth. Critically endangered by logging. On right of laterite road to Uda Manap.
S blumutensis
Shorea curtisii
Malaya, from Pattani to Singapore. common and characteristic species of hill dipterocarp forests. Light coloured crowns, lanceolate, glaucescent leaves (pale waxy bloom on upper leaf surface, lower surface pale yellow glaucescent). Large trees to 3m girth, record 7m. Dark red meranti.
 Shorea curtisii subsp grandis
Seraya daun besar
Endemic form found only in Keledang Saiong  and Bukit Kinta FRs, Perak, bw 200 and 500m. Deeply fissured bark, leaves resemble seraya, but much larger. Fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
Shorea-curtisii-sub-sp-grandisS curtisii subsp grandis ?
Shorea dasyphylla
meranti batu(red meranti group)
Malaya, eastern Sumatra, Sarawak. Favours low but well drained forest, now (critically?) endangered by land conversion & logging. Leaves ovate lanceolate to elliptic oblong, 11 x 6 cm, variable, 13 nerved, softly tomentose under. Planted 6/07 to NW of Rumah Balai.
Shorea faguetiana
damar siput(meranti damar hitam group)
Borneo, Malaya. Widely distributed, large tree. Leaves curl up on ground, ovate-lanceolate, 8 x 3 cm, 10 nerved, glabrous, petiole 12 mm, young expanding leaves dark red.
Shorea foxworthyi
balau bukit
Endemic species, throughout the peninsula except south of Ulu Selangor on west coast, on undulating land up to 2,000 feet.S foxworthyi trunk
Shorea gibbosa
damar hitam gajah
Malaya, SE Sumatra, Borneo. Malaya only in central & s Johor, Singapore. Pale silvery brown striated dried twigs and larger fruits distinguish it from S. faguetiana, v similar. Larger than damar hitam (S. multiflora). 1 from TH 11/09.Abundant in Sabah where it is known as seraya kuning gajahLatin, gibbosus = pouched; the stamina filament. SE Sumatra, Malaya, Singapore, Borneo. Widespread in Sabah. Vast emergent to 70m, 2m diam bole. Variable sp. Norsham 5.13
S gibbosa SabahS gibbosa stipule
Shorea gratissima
meranti laut
Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra.
Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings.
S gratissima
Shorea guiso
membatu(balau group)
From China to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo. Endangered. Small, thin 16 nerved leaves, 9 x 4 cm. Leaves larger on saplings than on mature trees. Planted 6/07.selangan batu merahFr Philippino name. Cochin China, Thailand, Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo, Philippines. Common in weakly seasonal tropics. Large emergent to 60m, 1.6m diam. Norsham 5.13.


Shorea hemsleyana
chengal pasir daun besar
Malay peninsula and Sarawak, especially in swampy land on lower Perak. Common in Ijok and Parit. Timber worked in Parit sawmill, but not plentiful.
Shorea henryana
meranti jerit
From south lower Burma, S Laos and Vietnam, and SE peninsular Thailand to Perlis, north Kedah and Langkawi. Yellow crown, ovate lanceolate leaves glaucous or pink under, rusty pink twigs. Timber hardest, heaviest, most difficult to saw. 2 planted 8/08.
S henryana
Shorea hopeifolia
damar siput jantan
Borneo, Sumatra, Malay peninsula, but not Selangor; near streams. Large winged fruit, 3 outer wings (5cm x 1 cm), 2 inner wings (3cm x .5cm), all red when mature.
Shorea hypochra
meranti temak
(meranti pa’ang group)
Cambodia, S. China, Thailand, Riau, Lingga, Malaya. Usually in low swampy forest. Endangered. Large oval to elliptic-oblong leathery leaves. Planted 6/07.
 Shorea kudatensis Wood ex Meijer

seraya kuning

Of Kudat, Sabah. Endemic in NE Sabah. Large emergent to 45m, 1.9m diam, low rounded buttresses. Endangered. Norsham 5.13.

S kudatensis
Shorea lamellata Foxw.
meranti lapis
Riau, Borneo, Malaya.
S Perak, now critically endangered. Oblong hairly leaves with c 24 prs prominent main nerves. Often >3m girth, short stout buttresses. TH 6.2012
S lammellata
Shorea laevis Ridl.
Burma, Thailand, N Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya. Common on inland ridges, often with S. curtisii   Probably largest trees in balau group. Fresh leaves bright yellow midrib.HSBG Tawau, Sabah, fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
S leavisS leavis leaf
Shorea lepidota
meranti langgong
Sumatra and Malaya, except Perlis, Kelantan, Selangor, usually on low land. Deeply fissured bark (mature), thin oblong glabrescent leaves, & saplings with persistent falcate stipules and downy twigs.
Shorea leprosula Miq
meranti  tembaga
red meranti group of Shorea
Throughout the peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. Used to be common on well drained lowland soils and the most abundant form of meranti; now much reduced but still common in protected areas, regenerates vigorously. 11 planted inside front fence in 1989, now (Jan 08) the largest has a CBH of 158 cm, 62″. Yellowish brown crown. Leaves elliptical, short blunt acuminate; about 15 nerved, yellow tomentose on lower surface. Twigs hairy.1 new specimen June 2008, pictured below.


S leprosula dry leafShorea-leprosula-1
Shorea longisperma
meranti damar hitam(meranti damar hitamgroup)
E. Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (mainly S). In undulating & low forest, up to 300m. Rare scattered tree; once locally common in parts of Selangor, now critically endangered. V. large trees, fallen leaves curled up, reddish brown on upper, pale and hairy on lower. 13 nerved, petiole 12mm coarsely stellate hairy. Planted 6/07.
 Shorea lumutensis Sym.
balau putih
Endemic, only from coastal hills in Dindings, Perak. Critically endangered. fissured bark, glaucous, leathery, elliptic-oblong leaves.S lumutensis leaf
S lumutensis
Shorea macrantha Brandis
kepong hantu, cengal/meranti pasir
Sumatra, Sarawak, Malaya (lower Sg Perak, E Pahang & Johor). Swampy areas, critically endangered by land conversion. Drooping branchlets; unequal sided leaves, tomentose; large wingless fruits.New specimen June 2008 pictured below. Shorea-macrantha
Shorea-macrantha_stipShorea macrantha stipule.
Shorea macroptera
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Sumatra, west Borneo. In low lying well drained forest, to 900m. Frequently assoc with seraya (S. curtisii). Leaves obovate oblong, 13 x 5 cm, variable, frequently folded along midrib, 15 nerved, drying dull yellow brown. Planted 6/07.
S materialis seedling
Shorea materialis
balau pasir
Endemic species limited to east coasts of Pahang, Johor and possibly Trengganu. Name refers to sandy habitat on river banks. Broad ovate,
glaucous, leathery leaves, prefers low flat land, but largely logged from accessible areas.
S materialis trunk
Shorea maxima
meranti sengkawang putih
(meranti damar hitam group)
Endemic Perak, S Pahang, & Kelantan. Once common in T. Malim on low hills. Endangered but conserved in parks. Dense crown w/twisted branches, large flowers, large wingless fruits. Small girth, rarely 2m. Leaves oblong lanceolate, 16 x 6cm, 9 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea maxwelliana
damar laut daunkecil
Essentially Malaya, sometimes in Borneo. Prefers well drained positions to 700m, more common on low ridges. Small elliptic/ovate-lanceolate leaves, faintly nerved and usually glaucous under.


 Shorea mecistopteryx

kawang burung (Sabah), engkabang burung (Sarawak)

Borneo endemic. Large emergent tree, vulnerable due to land conversion. Leaves chartaceous, brittle when dry, blade oblong up to 30 x 12 cm.

Shorea multiflora
damar hitam
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. Often on ridges in association with seraya (S. curtisii) & kumus (S. leavis). Small leaves dry light, golden brown under; small wingless fruits. Understorey tree.
Shorea ochrophloia
seraya batu(balau group)
Endemic, all states of Malaya, sporadically on low well drained land & hills up to 300m. Once common, now critically endangered. Yellow grey bole, large trees, girth up to 3m, short buttresses, crown large, heavy, dark coloured. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 7 x 5cm, 15 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea ovalis
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. A common meranti in lowland forest, favouring lowland and stream side. Boat shaped scabrid leaves, hairy twigs, semi-persistent triangular stipules. One of the largest and tallest trees, often >4m girth (2m in 45 yrs?), sharp buttresses. Light red meranti timber.S ovalis
Shorea ovata
meranti sarang punai bukit
Malaya, w Sumatra, Borneo, Mindanao. Rarely
found outside preferred habitat 600-1300m asl.
Oblong hairy stipules to 13mm. Slow growth cf
other dark red merantis. 1 from TH 11/09.
Shorea parvifolia
meranti sarang punai
Widely distributed, up to 800m, but generally most at 500m. Frequently the most abundant species of Shorea present in any forest. Semi persistent
triangular stipules.
Shorea pauciflora
Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. Low but well drained habitat, up to 700m. Common in Ijok FR, Perak. Scaly bole, purplish brown dried leaves,
inconspicuous tertiary nerves.
Shorea peltata Sym.
meranti telepok
E Sumatra, W and central Borneo, NE Johor in Jemaluang FR. Low land, critically endangered in Malaya. Peltate leaves, telepok for similarity to lotus leaf. 1 fr Tunas Harapan ’12.
S peltataS peltata leaf
Shorea platycarpa
meranti paya
red meranti group
Malaya, E. Sumatra. Edges of swamp forests from coastal Perak & Trengganu to Singapore. Locally abundant in Parit. Endangered. Coarsely fissured bark, dark coloured crown, & broad scabrid or tomentose leaves. Elliptic, 17 nerved.
Shorea platyclados
meranti bukit, karai
Mountainous areas of Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo in upper dipterocapr forest zone, higher than any other Shorea. Rich stands at the Gap, Fraser’s Hill. Flattened branchlets, smooth lanceolate leaves with sharply keeled midrib. Up to 5.5m girth, buttresses stout, bark falling in flat scales. Much logged, endangered.Shorea-platyclados-stip_sm 
S platyclados

Shorea resinosa
meranti belang
(meranti pa’ang group)
Sumatra, Malaya, W Sarawak. Wide range but rare, on undulating hills blw 500m. Critically endangered by habitat loss. Elliptic lanceolate smooth leaf 10 x 4 cm with 13 nerves prominently yellow against darker under surface of dried leaf. Large trees, over 3m girth, no buttresses. Planted 6/07.
2 new specimens June 2008, pictured to the right.

Shorea roxburghii
meranti pa’ang group of Shorea
From India (deciduous) to Malaya, very adaptable, north of the Malaya-Burma floristic division. Characteristic of Schima-bamboo forest in Perlis and Kedah. Thick bark, oblong thin, long petioled leaves. Tolerates drought and fire. Likely to expand its range with increasing dryness in remaining forests. It flowers and fruits when just a few years old. Formerly S. talura.
Shorea seminis (de Vriese) Slootenselangan batu terendak

Borneo and Philippines. Locally common along rivers. Large emergent to 45m.

S seminis SabahS seminis Sabah leaf
Shorea singkawang
meranti sengkawang
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Lingga, E. Sumatra. In lowland forest from Kedah & Kelantan to Johor. Usually on well drained land up to 400m. Not common. Large purple brown dead leaves, elliptic 20 x 8cm, 13 nerved; large fruits almost wingless. Planted 6/07.


S singkawang
Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa.Shorea singkawang var.scabrosameranti sengkawang (red meranti)Malaya, Lingga, e Sumatra. This sub sp (13 nerved leaf) only in E Terengganu & Pahang, rare, critically endangered. Large purple dead leaves (elliptic oblong 20cm). Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa stipule.
Shorea sumatrana
sengkawang (balaugroup)
Sumatra, Malay peninsula, generally on the east coast. Frequently in lowlying swampy habitats along the banks of rivers. Critically endangered by population fragmentation and habitat destruction. Twigs glabrous, leaves elliptic-oblong with about 10 pairs of nerves sharply prominent on undersurface. Fruits have reduced wings, adapted for water dispersal. This was one of the first Dipterocarps planted at Rimbun Dahan in 1990, and the single specimen has a girth of 90 cm (2008). The revised edition of Symington notes a much slower growth rate, to 60 cm in 19 years.This specimen was felled by a freak gust of wind, 12 Nov 2009. Seedlings propagated from it will be planted at Rimbun Dahan.Shorea-sumatrana-2Shorea sumatrana flower.
Shorea symingtonii Wood.C.F. Symington (1905-1943) master of the dipterocarps.

melapi kuning

Endemic to Borneo, confined to eastern Sabah, scattered in dipterocarp forest on clay rich soils.. Large emergent tree to 50m.

S symingtoniiS symingtonii leaf
Shorea sp.(balau)Seed from Johor.  Undescribed species. Shorea-sp
Shorea sp.(At old fountain) Shorea-sp.-no-ID-front-foun
Shorea sp.(Front fountain) Shorea-sp-no-ID-at-old-foun
Shorea sp.

<< Return to the Plant List